After trying for about 8 times, it finally got past the crash. So if this happens to you, keep replaying that part!
From what we've been able to reproduce of this issue in-office, this is the exact same thing as we've seen. However, we've never gotten it to crash on any non-Steam installations of the game.
We've had it happen on two computers locally (both while playing through Steam). For the first computer, we've had the issue happen two times in a row, and then never again.
On the second computer, we had it happen three times in a row, and then never again.
We did not disable the Steam Overlay or anything to make it work. It just did after a few attempts. Then again, we've had people reporting that this is a continuous issue for them, no matter how long they've tried.
That said, the event manager (or whatever it's called) dump you - as well as some of the others - posted states that it is the "ntdll.dll" that is the module causing the fault. I can see in your attached log file from the game that it is also reported as being the faulty module causing the crash.
Now, I don't have the most insight into exactly what this dll file is in charge of doing, but it is clearly a file in the core of the system. A quick Google search for it brought me to the following thread on Microsofts forums: Link here
There seems to be users encountering similar crashes with different applications, all of which are caused by a fault in ntdll.dll.
Some of them stated that it had something to do with the graphics driver, and rolling it back to a previous version helped, so it may be worth a try to update to the most recent version of your graphics driver's provider or downgrade to a previous one should you already have the latest one installed.
There's also some other suggestions to fix the issue in the aforementioned Microsoft thread that you can try. Hope this helps!
EDIT: As the issue was fixed for you, I guess you don't need to try to fix this any more. But should you encounter this again, or if any of you other guys that have posted here are still encountering this issue, I'd try to look into the suggestions in the link.